Sir, I would like to work on the Instructional Theory Page for my Wikipedia article (English)
For my regional article, I would like to develop the following page - active learning -
Please advise if I can go ahead with these 


 Reshmi.iyer (talk) 13:44, September 15, 2015 (UTC) 

Work-Based Learning Wikipedia User Sub Page -

Hindi Translation

Work-Based Learning Overview

Work-based learning (WBL) is an educational strategy that provides students with real-life work experiences where they can apply academic and technical skills and develop their employability.[1] It is a series of educational courses which integrates the school curriculum with the workplace to create a different learning paradigm. Work-based learning deliberately merges theory with practice and acknowledges the intersection of explicit and tacit forms of knowing.[2]

Most WBL programs are generally university accredited courses, aiming at a WIN-WIN situation where the learner's needs and industry requirements of talented employees both are met. WBL programs are targeted to bridge the gap between the learning and the doing. Work-based learning strategies provide career awareness, career exploration opportunities, career planning activities, and help students attain competencies such as positive work attitudes and other employable skills.[3]


Work-Based learning can be classified in 3 ways based on the -

  • Duration of the assignment: The work-based learning experience may be of a duration of a few hours to two or four years.
  • Relation to course-work: Work-Based Learning is generally related to a specific subject being taught at school or university.
  • Stipend: Work-based learning experiences may be paid or unpaid.

Learning Strategies

Work Based Learning strategies include[4]

  • Apprenticeship or Mentorship or Internship : An apprenticeship involves the student working for an employer where he or she is taught and supervised by an experienced employee of the chosen workplace for a period of two-four years. The student is periodically evaluated for progress in skills and knowledge and granted wages accordingly. At the end of the course, the student receives a certificate of service. The student learns in a realistic environment and gets the opportunity to apply his or her knowledge and skills in real-time issues.
  • Job Shadowing: Job Shadowing is a short-term educational experience that introduces students to a particular job or career by pairing them with an employee of the work place. By following or 'shadowing' the employee the student gets familiar with the duties associates with the job
  • Business/Industry Field Trip: Field trips offer students an insight into the latest techniques and advancements made in a particular business or industry. Students also learn about the various career opportunities and gain perspective of the economy of the community.
  • Cooperative Education: In cooperative education the work experience is planned in conjunction with the technical classroom instruction. This method is used by universities that do not have access to the state-of-art equipment required to transact the technical course practically.
  • Entrepreneurial Experience: This includes setting up of a particular business right from the planning, organizing, managing and risk control aspects of the entrepreneurship.
  • School-Based Enterprise: A school-based enterprise is a simulated or actual business run by the school. It replicates a specific business and offers students a learning experience by letting them manage various aspects of the school business.
  • Service Learning: This strategy combines community service with career, where students provide volunteer service to public and non-profit agencies as well as civic, charitable and government offices.

Roles and Responsibilities

WBL has 5 key persons with specific roles and responsibilities that ensure the program is implemented smoothly.

  • Student: Students have a key responsibility in the WBL program. They are expected to maintain good attendance, complete all requirements of the program and ensure appropriate paper work related to their work. They need to ensure high professionalism and acquire the competencies that are necessary to conclude the program.
  • Business Mentor: A business mentor needs to set realistic goals for the student assigned to him and her, engage them effectively, supervise regularly and ensure a high degree of professionalism.
  • Teacher Coordinator: A teacher coordinator is certified educator who checks on student progress and tracks the training program to completion
  • School Administrator: The school administrator is key in introduction of the WBL programs within the curriculum, after identifying key courses that can be learnt using the WBL strategies. They define the overall process for WBL programs
  • Parents: Parental support is necessary for successful implementation of the WBL programs. They must offer suitable guidance, support and motivation to their wards and approve the WBL program most suitable to their ward as per the ward's career aspirations


  • Application of classroom learning in real-world setting
  • Establishment of connection between school and work[5]
  • Improvement of awareness regarding career prospects
  • Increase in critical thinking, analytical reasoning and logical abilities
  • Expansion of curriculum and learning facilities
  • Meeting the diverse needs of the learner
  • Making education relevant and valuable to students
  • Creating a talented pool of future employees
  • Reduces pre-service training time and costs [6]
  • Community building exercise for productive economy and relationships[7]


  • Takes time to identify key concepts that can be introduced through WBL strategies
  • Needs careful planning of introducing the WBL programs within curriculum
  • Certain WBL programs may not sync with the formal education pattern and time line
  • it is unclear what key elements of this learning may be and that readily available indicators which equate with academic learning outcomes are not necessarily evoking it with accuracy. [8]
  • Needs effective coordination between all key roles - students, mentors, coordinators, administrators and parents for successful implementation
  • Effective evaluation strategy needs to be developed for assessing student performance. This should encompass both formative and summative feedback.


  1. Jump up^ "Work-Based Learning".
  2. Jump up^ Raelin, Joseph (November 1997). "A Model of Work-Based Learning". /Organization Science 8: 574.
  3. Jump up^ "Work-Based Learning".
  4. Jump up^ Hamilton, Stephen F.; Hamilton, Mary Agnes (1998). "When is Learning Work-Based?". The Phi Delta Kappan 78 (9): 677.
  5. Jump up^ Stasz, Cathleen; Brewer, Dominic J (1998). "Work-Based Learning: Student Perspectives on Quality and Links to School". Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 20 (1): 32.
  6. Jump up^ Cappelli, Peter; Shapiro, Daniel; Shumanis, Nicole (1998). "Employer Participation in School-to-Work Programs". Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 559 (1): 113.
  7. Jump up^ "Understanding Work-Based Learning" (PDF).
  8. Jump up^ Saunders, Murray (1995). "The Integrative Principle: Higher Education and Work-based Learning in the UK". European Journal of Education 30 (2): 214.